Mining is defined as the extraction of minerals from the Earth for its economic use or monetary value .

Usually, this includes solid materials (iron, coal, gravel etc) but can also include fluid resources such as oil (liquid) and natural gas (gas).Most of the resources extracted by mining are generally considered to be non-renewable in nature.

What are Ores?

Ores are metal-bearing minerals.

Mining Techniques

Surface Mining

A form of mining in which the soil and the rock covering the mineral deposits are removed.

Mountaintop Mining

AKA Mountaintop Removal Mining. A form of surface mining in which the mountain or summit top is blasted to expose underlying minerals especially coal.

Open-pit Mining

AKA Open-cast mining. A form of surface mining in which extraction of rock or minerals from the earth by their digging up large open holes in the ground.

Hydraulic Mining

A form of mining in which powerful hydraulic water jets are used to mine minerals.


A form of mining in which materials and minerals are excavated from the bottom of a water body (rivers, lakes or oceans).

Underground Mining

A mining technique in which the overlying rock is left in place, and the mineral beneath the surface of Earth is removed through shafts or tunnels.

Negative consequences of Mining:

  • Land Defacement

  • Underwater contamination

  • Pollution (Air, Water and Noise)

  • Health Hazards to labour

  • De-vegetation

  • Land Infertility