Trees is a long elongated plant with thick stem called trunk supporting other branches made of wood. Trees come under the category of plants, more specifically vascular plants. Trees have vascular tissues called xylem and phloem.

Xylem: A vascular tissue that carries water and minerals in stems, roots and leaves.

Phloem: A vascular tissue that serves a path for food distribution in a plant.

Anatomy of a Tree


Leaves also referred as food factories of the tree. It is the part of tree that converts energy into food. Leaves contain a special substance chlorophyll that gives leaves their green colour. Leaves, during photosynthesis, uses sun light to convert carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and water from the soil into sugar, which acts as a food for the tree. Oxygen is also made in this process which is released back into the air by the trees.


Above-ground spilt extension from the trunk of the trees which directly support fruits, flowers and leaves are branches.


The above-ground part of the plant composed of leaves, fruits, flowers etc which provides shadow on the ground is called crown of the tree. Crown allows the tree to remove extra water to keep it cool (just like sweating the humans and animals) called transpiration.


Fruits and Seeds

Fruit is a seed-bearing structure.

Seeds are the primary way for trees reproduction. Seeds can vary greatly in size and shape according to different trees.


The primary stem which is directly connected to the roots underground. Trunk is usually hard and its primary function is to support the tree system and the transport the nutrients collected from the ground. Trunk is also called bough of the tree.

A crotch or fork or clooney is an area on tree where a trunk bifurcates or splits into two or more boughs.


Underground extension from the trunk of the trees are roots. Roots have two main function, one is to collect water and nutrients from soil and second is to anchor the tree. Roots provide support to trees from tipping over.

Types of Tress

Deciduous Trees

Also called Hardwood trees. These trees shed their leaves during the fall.

NOTE: Few varieties of deciduous trees are Evergreen.

Coniferous Trees

Also called Evergreen trees. They preserve their leaves throughout the year. Even if they do shed their leaves, the don't loose them all, unlike deciduous trees.

Why trees are important?

  • Trees produce oxygen for us including nearly every animals on the Earth to breath.

  • Phytoremediation: It is the process by which trees absorb the harmful and dangerous material, chemical or pollutants from the soil or converts the harmful material to less harmful or totally harmless material.

  • They provide shadow and cooling.

  • Trees anchors through roots into the soil and hence avoids soil erosion and fights flooding.

  • Trees are house to complex habitats. They house and support different kinds of bird, insect, small mammals, fungi species on themselves.

  • They provide us mental calmness and serene mental stability as humans are naturally attracted to live and work in green surroundings. Trees and surrounding greenery create a peaceful and aesthetically pleasing environment. Most of us feel comfortable and relaxed around trees.

  • Trees provide us food in shade of fruit and other eatables drawn from a tree.

  • Trees heals and cures us from the medicine and drug developed from the tree.

  • Trees are both majestic and appealing. No two trees are alike. Different species display a seemingly endless variety of shapes, forms, textures and vibrant colours. Even individual trees vary their appearance throughout the course of the year as the seasons change. (Source)