What if the Dinosaurs had never gone extinct?
About 66 million years ago, an asteroid about the size of Mount Everest hit Earth travelling at a speed of 45,000 miles per hour. It hit the landmass which is now called Mexico. It was that hit that led to a chain of events that ultimately wiped out around 2500 species of dinosaurs and marked the species extinct. A species that reigned our planet for 160 million years. But what would have been the case if that asteroid had missed? What if dinosaurs never really died and were alive even today?
Back at that time, our Earth had a very warm climate with no polar ice. The supercontinent, Pangaea, broke down into 7 continents which we know today started breaking down into smaller landmasses from the era of dinosaurs. Dinosaurs back then were in all shapes and sizes. Some of them grew to be 110 feet long and weighed 100 tons. They consumed an average of 300 pounds of food per day. These dinosaur species lived in all parts of the globe including the waters and the atmosphere. The asteroid on entering the Earth's atmosphere became a fireball bolide due to friction. The fireball hit the planet with a force of 100 Million megatons. The impact tore apart the Earth's crust and blasted molten lava and dust into the air at a massive speed. This impact instinctly gave birth to an enormous earthquake of magnitude 11.2. Within seconds the temperature jumped to a burning 300°C. That was hot enough to suck out moisture from all the surrounding vegetation, trees and forest. And even boil the moisture from the skin of the dinosaurs which were closest to the blast zone. The shock wave from the impact of the massive asteroid was so immense that it stormed winds so fast that it threw away and tossed around large and heavy dinosaurs like grains of sand. The winds even tore flesh apart for a few. And all of this happened in just 5 minutes.
After that, 70 million tons of dust, ashes and lava which emerged from the collision filled the atmosphere forming clouds of extremely high temperatures and moving with an enormous speed of 10,000 miles per hour. These clouds spread from Modern-day Mexico to the rest of the world. The flying species of dinosaurs which didn't die on the ground were subject to "lava rains" with their wings being burnt out to dust. Yes, you read it correct. It was the lava from Earth's mantle that blew off to the atmosphere as the crust ruptured during the explosion and was now raining down along with the clouds of ashes.
As the temperature kept on rising, wildfires took over almost all the forests burning at around 1000°C, well that's warm enough to melt even solid metal. Smaller species like rats that were able to go underground somehow managed to sustain the heat. But the huge ones on the ground couldn't. In the modern day Mongolia, a dust storm suffocated all forms of life. The impact of the asteroid was not merciful to the aquatic species of dinosaurs either. The shock waves from the explosion gave rise to large series of tsunamis with tides up to 300 feet high! These shock waves kept on eating all species of dinosaurs for months. Many tectonic plates were ripped apart. The clouds of dust, smoke and lava not just raised temperatures and killed several species, but also started becoming thick avoiding the rays of sun to cross the atmosphere. Abundance of toxic gases and lack of oxygen suffocated the dinosaurs on the rest parts of the world. Any remaining dinosaurs that managed to survive eventually starved to death as all forms of vegetation was burnt to ashes and their ecosystem was severely devastated. And so it only took about 3 months to wipe out a total of 2500 species of dinosaurs from the planet. The crater of that asteroid impact survives till date. It's called the Chicxulub impactor which has an approximate diameter of 150 KM.
Insects, rats and smaller species of mammals managed to survive as they could find shelter underground. After a few years when the sunlight started penetrating the atmosphere and the dust clouds were gone, life forms such as ferns came back to life. And so with passing time, trees and forests took birth again. Eventually, with passing years, the planet got a new life.
By the way what if the asteroid collided into an ocean or a sea?
These chains of events would have been much lesser if the asteroid went down on a water body. The impact would have been absorbed much better than what it took for a landmass. In that case, Tsunamis must have been the major cause of devastation, but yet most of the species of dinosaurs could have survived. But fortunately, for us, that didn't happen.
Now, what if none of it would have happened?
What if the asteroid had missed hitting our planet and would have allowed the dinosaurs to live their natural life in peace? If that asteroid would have missed its target that day, then today we wouldn't be reading and researching dinosaurs at all. Because we would have never existed in the first place. It's because that dinosaurs were wiped out completely that the leftover mammals could survive long enough to multiply into the numbers that we have today! Mammals never got the opportunity to evolve as they were the prime source of food to dinosaurs. Mammals in the era of dinosaurs couldn't make it even to the size of a cat. So if dinosaurs continued to live on the planet, monkeys and humans would have never come into existence at all. It's because mammals were given millions of years to evolve that we are alive today. But yes, dinosaurs do have left us with their descendants like crocodiles, alligators, lizards, snakes, turtles and many more that are still living and breathing with us in our ecosystem.